Fundamental properties of humates and requirements for humic preparations
The company producing the humate Agrobio formulated seven conceptual provisions on the fundamental properties of humates and the requirements for them.
Before proceeding to the systematic presentation of theoretical and practical materials on the application of humates, we formulate, based on the above data, the main conceptual provisions that generalize the current achievements of the science of humates and set the most promising areas for new research.
1. Humates are a unique ionic form of natural humic acids, which plays a fundamental role in the ecosystem "water-plant-soil" and in the biosphere of the earth. Humates are a necessary link in the evolution of living and inanimate matter, the most important factor in the sustainability of life processes. As natural compounds, they are absolutely safe in the required doses, compatible with all elements of nutrition and plant protection. Humates possess the property of a complex action aimed at normalizing and stimulating precisely those processes of vital activity of plants that are inhibited or blocked by unfavorable environmental factors.
2. The effect of humates on the plant in all cases has a concentration optimum, at which the maximum level has a positive effect. The deviation from the optimum in either direction leads to a decrease in the level of positive influence. The optimal concentration and dosage of humate one by one or a combination of factors depends on the characteristics of water and soil, the type of plant, the climatic conditions, the conditions of application, and in each case should be determined experimentally. However, the technology of using humates is not much more complicated than mineral fertilizers.
3. The effect of the positive effect of humates is the more noticeable the greater the influence of the adverse factor or the greater the deviation from the optimal conditions for the development of the plant. The ratio of the level of the characteristics of the plant (for example, the yield) after treatment with a humate to the level of the same characteristic without treatment of the plant by the humate under optimal conditions of its development is minimal and increases with the deviation from them, while after cultivation by the humate the plant increases its ability to withstand adverse effects, viability (survival) of culture expand. Since the probability of occurrence of one or several unfavorable factors from their set is high, the total application of humates serves as an analogue of a financial insurance policy for the agricultural producer.
4. Humates have a fundamental property of synergism when used together with mineral and organic fertilizers, trace elements, pesticides, growth regulators and bacterial preparations. In other words, they have a universal ability to enhance the useful action of other substances.
5. The maximum and long-term positive effect is ensured by the complex effect of humate on all phases of plant development achieved by all types of plant treatment: seed and plant material processing, multiple processing of vegetative plants and soil conditioning. The strongest effect is observed when using humates at the earliest stages of laying, waking up and developing plants, starting with the soaking (sprinkling) of the seed material.
6. Humic preparation must contain high concentration of humate (at least 70-80% in dry preparation and 10-12% in liquid preparation), minimal quantity of ballast substances and have rather narrow limits of deviation of characteristics from batch to batch. Only in this case is the planned search and reproducibility of the concentration optimum guaranteed to obtain the maximum effect
In addition, the formulation should not be phytotoxic, which is ensured by neutral pH of the solution and absence of toxins in the ballast, and should not contain heavy metals, radionuclides and pathogens. This is possible with the development of technologies for the production of low-ballast and ballast-free humic fertilizers of a new generation that meet modern international and national quality and safety standards.
7. Preparative forms and the aggregate state of humic preparations should ensure minimum labor costs in their practical application and allow the realization of all conventional technologies of application, including combining with treatments with other substances (mineral and organic fertilizers, plant protection products, etc.). To this end, the industry must ensure the release of humates in the form of granules, powders, solutions, pastes and gels, which will allow the consumer to choose the most suitable technologies for using humates, either alone or in combination with other preparations and fertilizers.
All the subsequent part of our work is aimed at the proof and practical implementation of these provisions. On the one hand, as an initial practical basis, we have a huge amount of experimental results for 60 years of their use, but obtained in the absence of quality control of humic preparations. In addition, although the bulk of the experimental data is correct and statistically reliable, some of the results do not satisfy the elementary requirements of the technique of the experimental case, the experiments were carried out without observing the basic principle - the principle of a single difference, and without repetition, which does not allow their statistical evaluation.
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