The influence of humates on the resistance of plants to the action of adverse factors and stresses
The role of humates in the sustainability of plant development. Dependence of the effectiveness of humates on the degree of deviation from the optimum conditions of plant development
The most important feature of the biological activity of humates is to increase the resistance of plants to the action of unfavorable factors and stresses, to expand the range of climatic and other conditions of their survival and fruiting. Humic substances are not a random product in the chain of organic remains, but a necessary link in the evolution of living and inanimate matter, the most important factor in the sustainability of life processes. It is for this reason that the effect of using humates is higher the greater the impact of the adverse factor or the greater the deviation from the optimal conditions for plant development.
The fundamental difference between humates and many other biologically active substances lies in the fact that they increase the resistance of plants not to any specific factors of the environment, but specifically increase the body's resistance to the action of any factor, compensating for the lack of natural protective resources. Our scientists suggested that this is due to the fact that the action of the humates is aimed at normalizing and stimulating precisely those leading processes of cellular metabolism that are inhibited or blocked by unfavorable environmental factors. In this case, the cells acquire the additional opportunity to quickly restore their vital structures and thereby resist the harmful effects of unfavorable conditions. You can think that the plant uses all the richness of the molecular composition, chemical, energy and biological potential of the humates and chooses from the whole variety of nutritional, protective and stimulating properties precisely those that are most needed at the moment to resist the action of specific factors impeding development. And since out of a multitude of unfavorable factors under real conditions, a part of the active in a given period of time will necessarily be found, the useful result of the work of the compensatory mechanism incorporated in humates by nature itself will be manifested almost always.
This feature of humates is illustrated in Fig. 7. This figure is largely conditional, since the real dependencies are multifactorial and complex, but with its help the main regularities are traced.
Fig. 7. The effect of humate on the stability of yields, depending on the level of exposure to unfavorable environmental factors.
In this figure, the ordinate reflects yield, and abscissa - the level of deviation of the growth factor (nutrition, illumination, humidity, temperature, etc.).
Curve 1 determines the dependence of the crop yield on the level of the external unfavorable factor in the control (without treatment with the humate) and limits the limits of its fruiting or survival. Curve 2 determines the yield and the limits of plant viability when treated with humate. The shaded area reflects the effectiveness of the application of humate. The ratio of the yield of treated and untreated plants at the optimum point is minimal, and as the deviation from the optimum increases. Thus, when using humates in an unstable climate and the effects of various unfavorable factors, the yield tends to maintain at the same level as under the optimal conditions, but the stability limits of these parameters and the viability (survival) during the treatment with the humate significantly expand.
The protective effect of the effect of humate in the deviation of the conditions of plant development from the optimum was noted by many researchers. We want to pay closer attention also to expanding the boundaries of fruiting and vitality, which is of great interest for practice.
Thus, in the zone of non-guaranteed agriculture, the possibility of losing a future crop or the survival of a culture after an impulse (short-term late frosts) or a prolonged (cold, little snowy winter, prolonged summer drought or rainy summer with rare sunny days) is of great practical importance. In this case, the main criterion of the effectiveness of humate is no longer the yield, but the very fact of saving plants from death, which is especially important for perennials, when the damage from their death significantly exceeds the cost of harvesting one year. More detailed information on the effect of humates on coping with stresses of a different nature is given in Section 2.3., But several examples from our own practice that support this statement are relevant here. So,
Due to climate change on the planet and global warming in agricultural regions, the instability of climatic conditions is increasing, therefore the need for using humates to protect plants from unfavorable weather conditions will increase every year.
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